Robin Hood

We're working on converting this to be one of our "Classic Comparisons" pages. It will eventually offer additional information on the background of the Robin Hood legends, additional teaching materials and comparisons of various versions (we've got 26 different Robin Hood authors in our queue right now!). Please check back, or feel free to email with questions!

In the United States, when we hear the word "outlaw" we think of cowboys wearing sheepskin chaps, leather vests, spurs, and sixguns. We don't think of sneaky bad guys who shoot their enemies in the back for a couple of dollars. Probably the most famous American outlaw is the "great" Jesse James, friend of the poor, enemy of the oppressor, the Robin Hood of the West.

The pinnacle of legendary status is to have other legends named after you. Jesse James is famous; but he's not as famous as his 12th-century English counterpart, the wild forester clad in green and shooting, stickfighting, and fencing for the heart of Maid Marian and the good of Olde England. Kids still dress up like Robin Hood and make bows and arrows out of sticks and twine, and while a few still dress like bandits, how many dress like Jesse James?

What does it take for a legend to become a Robin Hood? By now, the litany is well-known: a Robin Hood steals from the rich to give to the poor, woos a fair maiden, is funny and insolent, runs around with Merry Men, and is the best bowman and swordsman around. These attributes can be transposed to any culture in which a Robin Hood appears—if he's Japanese he might be a rogue samurai, if he's Latin American he might be avaquero, etc.

But why talk about a Robin Hood? What about the Robin Hood? What about the actual outlaw who roamed Sherwood Forest and fought the Sheriff of Nottingham and was loyal to Richard the Lionhearted? What about the guy who defeated Sir Guy of Gisborne, was friends with Little John, carried Friar Tuck across a stream, rubbed salt in Will Stutely's wounds, and shot his last arrow out of a window? What about the Robin Hood we love?

It's not that easy. The Robin Hood we love is whatever Robin Hood we've pieced together in our own imaginations, a composite of movies we've seen, books we've read, and scenes we've acted out. Part of the problem is that there was likely no "historical Robin Hood"; if the character was real, he was several outlaws who didn't live in Sherwood and weren't the good guys.

The fact that a bandit became the good guy is weird to begin with, at least until you understand what was going on in England in the late 1100s. John Lackland, brother of the king, eyed the throne while his brother King Richard killed Saracens in the Holy Land. Robin of Locksley opposed John and protected the poor from oppression at the hands of wealthy nobles.

The legends say so, anyway. The actual situation in 12th-century England was more nuanced, but for the sake of the Robin Hood myth the stage was set this way. It's accurate enough, especially if you're interested in a man whose sense of justice was stronger than his desire for personal wealth. Some reinterpretations of Robin Hood cast him as a true villain, but that only works if oppression and murder are considered morally acceptable.

All the good versions of Robin Hood show him as a selfless hero who works for the good of England and his people, not to make a profit or spread anarchy. These versions differ on particulars but essentially show the same Robin Hood, a man that appeals to every generation. He's the warrior every boy wants to be, the hero every girl loves, the altruist everyone wants to imitate.

Reading multiple versions of the Robin Hood legend helps us understand how people through the years have thought of goodness and honor. Different authors emphasize different elements, showing aspects of heroism that other writers miss or disregard. Other outlaws may be compared to Robin Hood, but he can't be compared to them: he isn't a mere bandit, he's a martyr for justice, outlawed because of his stand for truth and goodness.

Howard Pyle's Robin Hood is noble and mischievous; Henry Gilbert's Robin Hood is a man of action; Roger Green's Robin Hood is the most popular, the one who can out-shoot, out-wit, and out-woo any man in England or elsewhere. All these Robin Hoods are virtuous, good role models for our sons, the kind of hero to enliven even the most reluctant imagination.

Review by C. Hollis Crossman
C. Hollis Crossman used to be a child. Now he's a husband and father who loves church, good food, and weird stuff. He might be a mythical creature, but he's definitely not a centaur. Read more of his reviews here.
 
A list of Robin Hood versions we are comparing.... (mostly vintage versions)
 
1883 Merry Adventures of Robin Hood by Howard Pyle
1900 Young Robin Hood by George Manville Fenn
1907 Stories of Robin Hood Told to the Children by H. E. Marshall
1911 Sherwood: A Play in Five Acts by Alfred Noyes
1912 Robin Hood by Louis Rhead
1917 Robin Hood by Paul Creswick
1923 Robin Hood and His Merry Outlaws by J. Walker McSpadden
1923 Robin Hood by G. C. Harvey (editor)
1928 Robin Hood by Edith Heal
1931 Merry Ballads of Robin Hood by Laurabelle Dietrick
1939 Robin Hood: The Prince of Outlaws by Carola Oman
1948 Robin Hood's Arrow by Eugenia Stone
1950 Chronicles of Robin Hood by Rosemary Sutcliff
1950 Robin Hood and His Merry Men by Arthur Malcolm 
1956 Adventures of Robin Hood by Roger Green
1956 Silver Horn of Robin Hood by Donald E. Cooke
1964 Robin Hood by Henry Gilbert
1965 Adventures of Robin Hood by E. Charles Vivian
1968 Robin Hood of Sherwood Forest by Anne McGovern
1988 Outlaws of Sherwood by Robin McKinley
1989 Robin Hood retold by Sarah Hayes
1996 Robin of Sherwood by Michael Morpugo
1998 In a Dark Wood by Michael Cadnum
1999 Usborne's Tales of Robin Hood by Tony Allen
2007 King Raven Trilogy by Stephen Lawhead
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Parent Categories
29 Items found Print
Adventures of Robin Hood
Everyman's Library Children's Classics
by Roger Green
from Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.
Fairy Tales, Fables, and Legends for 5th-9th grade
in Adventure Stories (Location: FIC-ADV)
Adventures of Robin Hood
Puffin Classics
by Roger Green
from Puffin Books
Fairy Tales, Fables, and Legends for 5th-9th grade
in Adventure Stories (Location: FIC-ADV)
$5.94 $4.00 (1 in stock)
Adventures of Robin Hood
by E. Charles Vivian
from Airmont Publishing Company, Inc.
for 4th-8th grade
in Adventure Stories (Location: FIC-ADV)
$3.00 (1 in stock)
ECL #09: Merry Adventures of Robin Hood
Educator Classic Library
by Howard Pyle
Complete and Unabridged Edition from Classic Press
in Educator's Classic Library (Location: FIC-ECL)
$3.00 (1 in stock)
Hood
The Raven King Book 1
by Stephen R. Lawhead
First Edition from Thomas Nelson Publishers
for 8th-Adult
in 20th & 21st Century Literature (Location: LIT7-20)
$16.99
King Raven Trilogy
by Stephen Lawhead
for 9th-Adult
in Fantasy Fiction (Location: FIC-FAN)
Merry Adventures of Robin Hood
Signet Classics
by Howard Pyle
from Signet Classics
Fairy Tales, Fables, and Legends for 7th-9th grade
in 19th Century Literature (Location: LIT6-19)
$5.91
Merry Adventures of Robin Hood
by Howard Pyle
from Dover Publications
Fairy Tales, Fables, and Legends for 7th-9th grade
in Adventure Stories (Location: FIC-ADV)
$10.16
Merry Adventures of Robin Hood
Sterling Classics
by Howard Pyle & Scott McKowen
Unabridged from Sterling Publishing Co.
Fairy Tales, Fables, and Legends for 7th-9th grade
in Sterling Classics (Location: FIC-STE)
$14.95
Merry Adventures of Robin Hood
Illustrated Junior Library Series 2
by Howard Pyle
from Grosset & Dunlap
Fairy Tales, Fables, and Legends for 5th-8th grade
in Adventure Stories (Location: FIC-ADV)
Merry Adventures of Robin Hood
Illustrated Junior Library Series 3
by Howard Pyle
from Grosset & Dunlap
Fairy Tales, Fables, and Legends for 5th-8th grade
in Adventure Stories (Location: FIC-ADV)
Merry Adventures of Robin Hood
Illustrated Junior Library Series 1
by Howard Pyle
from Grosset & Dunlap
Fairy Tales, Fables, and Legends for 5th-8th grade
in Adventure Stories (Location: FIC-ADV)
Outlaws of Sherwood
by Robin McKinley
from ACE Publishing
for 8th-12th grade
in Adventure Stories (Location: FIC-ADV)
$12.75 $10.00 (1 in stock)
Robin Hood
by Philip Neil
from DK Publishing
for 1st-2nd grade
in Adventure Stories (Location: FIC-ADV)
$4.00 (1 in stock)
Robin Hood
by J. Walker McSpadden
from Dover Publications
for 4th-6th grade
in Adventure Stories (Location: FIC-ADV)
$5.09
Robin Hood
by Louis Rhead
from Dilithium Press, Ltd.
for 4th-8th grade
in Adventure Stories (Location: FIC-ADV)
Robin Hood
Scribner Illustrated Classics
by Paul Creswick
1st edition from Atheneum
for 6th-10th grade
in Adventure Stories (Location: FIC-ADV)
Robin Hood
by Neil Philip
1st American ed from DK Children
for 3rd-6th grade
in Adventure Stories (Location: FIC-ADV)
$6.50 (1 in stock)
Robin Hood
Scribner Illustrated Classics
by Paul Creswick
Reissue from Atheneum
for 6th-10th grade
in Adventure Stories (Location: FIC-ADV)
$21.24
Robin Hood
by Henry Gilbert
from Parents Magazine Press
for 5th-9th grade
in Adventure Stories (Location: FIC-ADV)
$5.00 (1 in stock)
Robin Hood - Comprehension Guide
by Diane Coleman
from Veritas Press
for 4th-7th grade
in Veritas Press Literature Guides (Location: LITSG-VP)
$15.00
Robin Hood - Memoria Press Package
from Memoria Press
for 5th-9th grade
in Memoria Press Literature & Poetry (Location: LITSG-MP)
Robin Hood - MP Student Guide
from Memoria Press
for 5th grade
in Memoria Press Literature & Poetry (Location: LITSG-MP)
$11.95 $8.00 (1 in stock)
Robin Hood - MP Teacher Guide
by Tanya Charlton
from Memoria Press
for 5th grade
in Memoria Press Literature & Poetry (Location: LITSG-MP)
$12.95 $9.00 (1 in stock)
Robin Hood Handbook
by Mike Dixon-Kennedy
from Sutton Publishing
for Adult
Scarlet
The King Raven Trilogy Book 2
by Stephen R. Lawhead
from Thomas Nelson Publishers
for 9th-Adult
in 20th & 21st Century Literature (Location: LIT7-20)
$16.99
Stories of Robin Hood
by H. E. Marshall
from Yesterday's Classics
for 2nd-5th grade
in Yesterday's Classics (Location: FIC-YC)
$7.16
Tales of Robin Hood
by Tony Allan & Ron Tiner
from Usborne
for 4th-6th grade
in Adventure Stories (Location: FIC-ADV)
$8.49
Tuck
The King Raven Trilogy Book 3
by Stephen R. Lawhead
Reprint from Thomas Nelson Publishers
for 9th-Adult
in 20th & 21st Century Literature (Location: LIT7-20)
$14.44