Once upon a time there was a bookseller. His name was Frederic G. Melcher, and he knew in his heart that books for children were just as important as books for adults, if not more so. Why, he wondered, are they so often ignored? He thought and thought, and decided in the end that it didn't matter why; what mattered was that he did something to change all that.
He did. In 1921, he proposed the Newbery Award to the American Library Association, a prize named for 18th-century English bookseller John Newbery to be given to the most distinguished American children's book published the previous year. The Association's Executive Board approved the idea, much to the joy of children's librarians everywhere, and the first Newbery Award was given in 1922.
The express purpose of the medal was "To encourage original creative work in the field of books for children. To emphasize to the public that contributions to the literature for children deserve similar recognition to poetry, plays, or novels. To give those librarians, who make it their life work to serve children's reading interests, an opportunity to encourage good writing in this field."
Winning books are included in the list below; runner-up honor books are available in the list here. Melcher's brainchild was the first children's book award in the world, and remains the measure of all the others. He went on to initiate the Caldecott Award for best illustrated children's book, and together the Newbery and the Caldecott provide an important standard for evaluating children's books in the United States and beyond.
2019: Merci Suarez Changes Gears by Meg Medina
- Merci navigates the start of 6th grade as her grandfather becomes ill and her brother prepares to leave for college.
- Night Diary, written by Veera Hiranandani (Dial Books for Young Readers)
- Book of Boy, written by Catherine Gilbert Murdock, illustrated by Ian Schoenherr (Greenwillow Books)
2018: Hello, Universe by Erin Entrada Kelly
- A cruel act by a neighborhood bully starts a series of events that leads others to find inner bravery and friendship.
- Crown: An Ode to the Fresh Cut, written by Derrick Barnes, illustrated by Gordon C. James (Bolden/Agate)
- Long Way Down, by Jason Reynolds (Atheneum/Simon & Schuster Children’s)
- Piecing Me Together, by Renée Watson (Bloomsbury)
2017: The Girl Who Drank the Moon by Kelly Barnhill
- Freedom Over Me: Eleven Slaves, Their Lives and Dreams Brought to Life by Ashley Bryan, written and illustrated by Ashley Bryan (Atheneum/Simon & Schuster)
- The Inquisitor’s Tale: Or, The Three Magical Children and Their Holy Dog, written by Adam Gidwitz, illustrated by Hatem Aly (Dutton/Penguin Random House)
- Wolf Hollow, by Lauren Wolk (Dutton/Penguin Random House)
2016: Last Stop on Market Street by Matt de la Pena
- A young boy and his grandmother brave the mean streets of Brooklyn to serve hot food to the homeless.
2015: The Crossover by Kwame Alexander
W - Junior high basketball gets the slam poetry treatment in this unrealistic novel of cliched family relationships.
2014: Flora & Ulysses by Kate DiCamillo
A - Ridiculous in the best sense of the word, this tale of a girl and her superhero squirrel is tender and hilarious.
- Doll Bones by Holly Black
- The Year of Billy Miller by Kevin Henkes
- One Came Home by Amy Timberlake
- Paperboy by Vince Vawter
2013: The One and Only Ivan by Katherine Applegate
F W - A large, artistic gorilla caged in a supermall gives voice to contemporary Evolutionistic propaganda.
2012: Dead End in Norvelt by Jack Gantos
F L A W - A wild kid and an old woman in a New Deal town celebrate atheistic Communism and moral anarchy.
2011: Moon over Manifest by Clare Vanderpool
- A Depression-era girl discovers the truth about her father while waiting for him to return.
- Turtle in Paradise by Jennifer L. Holm
- Heart of a Samurai by Margi Preus
- Dark Emperor and Other Poems of the Night by Joyce Sidman, illustrated by Rick Allen
- One Crazy Summer by Rita Williams-Garcia
2010: When You Reach Me by Rebecca Stead
F L - A sci-fi novel about time travel meets a realistic story of self-sacrifice and love in 1970s Harlem.
2009: The Graveyard Book by Neil Gaiman, illus. by Dave McKean
F W - A masterful riff on The Jungle Books, these stories are set in a London graveyard peopled by ghosts and goblins.
- The Underneath by Kathi Appelt, illus. by David Small
- The Surrender Tree: Poems of Cuba's Struggle for Freedom by Margarita Engle
- Savvy by Ingrid Law
- After Tupac & D Foster by Jacqueline Woodson
2008: Good Masters! Sweet Ladies! Voices from a Medieval Village by Laura Amy Schlitz
- Short (usually poetic) plays allowing students to bring the Middle Ages to colorful life.
2007: The Higher Power of Lucky by Susan Patron, illus. by Matt Phelan
L S - Lucky is a lovable little girl living in the desert without parents and without a clear trajectory for her young life.
- Penny from Heaven by Jennifer L. Holm
- Hattie Big Sky by Kirby Larson
- Rules by Cynthia Lord
2006: Criss Cross by Lynne Rae Perkins
L W - Postmodernism lite for young readers, Criss Cross encourages kids to find their own meaning and reality.
- Whittington by Alan Armstrong, illustrated by S.D. Schindler
- Hitler Youth: Growing Up in Hitler's Shadow by Susan Campbell Bartoletti
- Princess Academy by Shannon Hale
- Show Way by Jacqueline Woodson, illustrated by Hudson Talbott
2005: Kira-Kira by Cynthia Kadohata
- A somewhat maudlin family tale about Japanese-Americans in the 1950s who struggle with loss and growth.
- Al Capone Does My Shirts by Gennifer Choldenko
- The Voice that Challenged a Nation: Marian Anderson and the Struggle for Equal Rights by Russell Freedman
- Lizzie Bright and the Buckminster Boy by Gary D. Schmidt
2004: The Tale of Despereaux: Being the Story of a Mouse, a Princess, Some Soup, and a Spool of Thread by Kate DiCamillo
L - A mouse who doesn't fit in explores a dangerous castle in search of his true love....and the meaning of life.
2003: Crispin: The Cross of Lead by Avi
F L - Wat Tyler's Rebellion provides the implied backdrop for this rousing historical adventure about faith and identity.
2002: A Single Shard by Linda Sue Park
- A boy in Medieval Korea learns truths about the heart and hard work as he learns pottery-making from a master.
2001: A Year Down Yonder by Richard Peck
- Mary Alice describes life with eccentric, dour Grandma Dowdel, first love, and 1930s rural Illinois.
2000: Bud, Not Buddy by Christopher Paul Curtis
W - A black orphan seeks his father in Michigan during the Great Depression and winds up touring with a jazz band.
1999: Holes by Louis Sachar
L - A pretty average boy is sent to a detention camp for a crime he didn't commit, and learns about life and friendship.
1998: Out of the Dust by Karen Hesse
F - The Dust Bowl is the backdrop for this heartbreaking yet hopeful novel-in-verse of father-daughter love and bonding.
1997: The View from Saturday by E. L. Konigsburg
L - Four 6th graders and their paraplegic teacher learn about selflessness and friendship as they train for a trivia bowl.
1996: The Midwife's Apprentice by Karen Cushman
F L W S - A young orphaned waif forges her own identity amidst the squalor of a near-fantastical Medieval England.
1995: Walk Two Moons by Sharon Creech
F L - 13-year-old Salamanca Hiddle travels to Lewiston, ID and through the past to come to terms with loss.
1994: The Giver by Lois Lowry
F S - In this challenging dystopian novel, Jonas learns that there's a heavy price for joy, and that it's worth paying.
1993: Missing May by Cynthia Rylant
L W - This story about the loss a 12-year-old girl and an old man experience accurately depicts grief, but falters in its solution.
- What Hearts by Bruce Brooks
- The Dark-thirty: Southern Tales of the Supernatural by Patricia McKissack
- Somewhere in the Darkness by Walter Dean Myers
1992: Shiloh by Phyllis Reynolds Naylor
F L W - Marty Preston goes to great lenghts to rescue his beloved beagle Shiloh, and matures in the process.
1991: Maniac Magee by Jerry Spinelli
- Both gritty and fanciful, the story of a loving boy looking for home and finding very unlikely places to lay his head.
1990: Number the Stars by Lois Lowry
- Young Annemarie's Jewish friend Ellen and her family are in danger from the Nazis in 1940s Copenhagen, Denmark.
- Afternoon of the Elves by Janet Taylor Lisle
- Shabanu, Daughter of the Wind by Suzanne Fisher Staples
- The Winter Room by Gary Paulsen
1989: Joyful Noise: Poems for Two Voices by Paul Fleischman
- A series of poems about creepy crawlies designed to be read out loud by two readers at the same time.
- In The Beginning: Creation Stories from Around the World by Virginia Hamilton
- Scorpions by Walter Dean Myers
1988: Lincoln: A Photobiography by Russell Freedman
- A balanced and engaging portrait (both literal and figurative) of the often either maligned or worshiped 16th president of the USA.
- After The Rain by Norma Fox Mazer
- Hatchet by Gary Paulsen
1987: The Whipping Boy by Sid Fleischman
L - A young peasant who takes beatings for the prince saves their lives and helps them both discover true friendship.
1986: Sarah, Plain and Tall by Patricia MacLachlan
- A tale of subtle beauty in which two orphans, their father, and a mail-order bride become a family on the prairie.
1985: The Hero and the Crown by Robin McKinley
L S - The hero is actually a heroine and the crown plays little role in this ultimately forgettable high fantasy.
1984: Dear Mr. Henshaw by Beverly Cleary
- A young writer deals with the pains of his parents's divorce and growing up by writing letters to his favorite author.
- The Sign of the Beaver by Elizabeth George Speare
- A Solitary Blue by Cynthia Voigt
- Sugaring Time by Kathryn Lasky
- The Wish Giver: Three Tales of Coven Tree by Bill Brittain
1983: Dicey's Song by Cynthia Voigt
- A band of four siblings end up with their Gram in Maryland and begin to forge a normal life for themselves.
1982: A Visit to William Blake's Inn: Poems for Innocent and Experienced Travelers by Nancy Willard
- Nancy Willard uses Blake's poetry as a jumping off place for some nonsense verse of her own set in a magic inn.
1981: Jacob Have I Loved by Katherine Paterson
W S - A bleak but beautiful tale of a girl, a Chesapeake crabbing community, and loss of faith during World War II.
1980: A Gathering of Days: A New England Girl's Journal, 1830-1832 by Joan W. Blos
- Young Catherine Hall describes the sorrows and triumphs of early 19th century farm life in New Hampshire.
1979: The Westing Game by Ellen Raskin
- This very funny mystery novel reveals many things, from who Sam Westing is to what it is that makes a friendship.
1978: Bridge to Terabithia by Katherine Paterson
L A W - A couple 10-year-olds in rural Virginia cope with life by inventing an imaginary kingdom where tragedy awaits.
1977: Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry by Mildred D. Taylor
F L - Set in 1930s Mississippi, this beautiful story follows the black Logan family in their fight for dignity and land.
1976: The Grey King by Susan Cooper
F - A fantasy in which there are no swordfights, no dragons, and a wizard who only asks a riddle then disappears.
1975: M. C. Higgins, the Great by Virginia Hamilton
A - M. C. Higgins must prove to his father Jones, his crush Lurhetta Outlaw, and himself, that he is, in fact, the Great.
1974: The Slave Dancer by Paula Fox
F L - Never has the slave trade been excoriated and exposed in such beautiful language, or with such great sadness.
1973: Julie of the Wolves by Jean Craighead George
F S - Miyax discovers the old ways of the Eskimos, her people, just as their culture teeters on the edge of annihilation.
1972: Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of NIMH by Robert C. O'Brien
- Some ingenious rats and a scared mouse brave evil cats and loud tractors to save the mouse's children from death.
1971: The Summer of the Swans by Betsy Byars
- Middle schooler Sara joins an all-day search for her missing mentally handicapped 10-year-old brother Charlie.
1970: Sounder by William H. Armstrong
F - An extraordinarily simple and moving story about a black family torn apart by injustice and held together by hope.
- Our Eddie by Sulamith Ish-Kishor
- The Many Ways of Seeing: An Introduction to the Pleasures of Art by Janet Gaylord Moore
- Journey Outside by Mary Q. Steele
1969: The High King by Lloyd Alexander
F - Taran the Assistant Pig-Keeper becomes Taran the War Leader in this action-packed epic fantasy of Prydain.
- To Be a Slave by Julius Lester
- When Shlemiel Went to Warsaw and Other Stories by Isaac Bashevis Singer
1968: From the Mixed-Up Files of Mrs. Basil E. Frankweiler by E. L. Konigsburg
- Claudia is altogether too typical, so she runs away with brother Jamie to hide in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
- Jennifer, Hecate, Macbeth, William McKinley, and Me, Elizabeth by E. L. Konigsburg
- The Black Pearl by Scott O'Dell
- The Fearsome Inn by Isaac Bashevis Singer
- The Egypt Game by Zilpha Keatley Snyder
1967: Up a Road Slowly by Irene Hunt
S - This subtle and beautiful meditation on growing up deals with death, loneliness, and love with equal candor.
1966: I, Juan de Pareja by Elizabeth Borton de Trevino
F - Brilliant historical novel about Juan, the black slave of renowned Spanish painting master Diego Velazquez.
1965: Shadow of a Bull by Maia Wojciechowska
F - Young Manolo must learn to overcome his fears and face his bull (both real and metaphorical) to become a man.
- Across Five Aprils by Irene Hunt
1964: It's Like This, Cat by Emily Neville
F - This relatively forgotten little gem about a teenager in 1960s Manhattan is both gritty and heartwarming.
1963: A Wrinkle in Time by Madeleine L'Engle
W - The Murry children and Calvin O'Keefe set off across the universe to rescue Meg's dad and save the world.
- Thistle and Thyme: Tales and Legends from Scotland by Sorche Nic Leodhas, pseud. (Leclaire Alger)
- Men of Athens by Olivia Coolidge
1962: The Bronze Bow by Elizabeth George Speare
F W - A young Galilean named Daniel must choose between violence and peace as he looks for the kingdom of God.
1961: Island of the Blue Dolphins by Scott O'Dell
F - Karana must overcome her own limitations of education, her fear, and her loneliness in order to survive alone.
1960: Onion John by Joseph Krumgold
- Who knew it would take a backward immigrant no one understands to help a father and son learn to communicate?
1959: The Witch of Blackbird Pond by Elizabeth George Speare
A W - 16-year-old Kit moves from Barbados to Connecticut, only to find her Puritan relatives too stuffy and solemn.
1958: Rifles for Watie by Harold Keith
F L - Young Jeff Bussey becomes a man and falls in love while battling both Rebels and Unionists in the Civil War.
1957: Miracles on Maple Hill by Virginia Sorensen
- Two kids in rural Pennsylvania forget their city roots and run free through the woods and hills of their new home.
1956: Carry On, Mr. Bowditch by Jean Lee Latham
- This factual novel follows "Nat" Bowditch from indentureship to his career as a sailor and brilliant mathematician.
- The Secret River by Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings
- The Golden Name Day by Jennie Lindquist
- Men, Microscopes, and Living Things by Katherine Shippen
1955: The Wheel on the School by Meindert DeJong
- Some Dutch kids search the countryside looking for a wheel to put on the schoolhouse roof for storks to roost on.
1954: ...And Now Miguel by Joseph Krumgold
W - Shepherding and the annual sheep drive to the Sangre de Cristo mountains are the path to manhood for Miguel.
1953: Secret of the Andes by Ann Nolan Clark
W - In a Peru untouched by modernity, Cusi learns who he is, where he comes from, and what he truly wants.
1952: Ginger Pye by Eleanor Estes
- Two kids in early 1900s Connecticut actually behave like children and look for their missing dog, Ginger Pye.
1951: Amos Fortune, Free Man by Elizabeth Yates
- A black man attains his freedom and gives the same gift to others throughout the 18th century in the United States.
- Better Known as Johnny Appleseed by Mabel Leigh Hunt
- Gandhi, Fighter Without a Sword by Jeanette Eaton
- Abraham Lincoln, Friend of the People by Clara Ingram Judson
- The Story of Appleby Capple by Anne Parrish
1950: The Door in the Wall by Marguerite de Angeli
- Young Robin de Bureford traverses Medieval England in search of his destiny, handicapped by plague-ridden legs.
- Tree of Freedom by Rebecca Caudill
- The Blue Cat of Castle Town by Catherine Coblentz
- Kildee House by Rutherford Montgomery
- George Washington by Genevieve Foster
- Song of The Pines: A Story of Norwegian Lumbering in Wisconsin by Walter & Marion Havighurst
1949: King of the Wind by Marguerite Henry
- Young Agba follows the legendary Godolphin Arabian from Morocco to France to England to ultimate greatness.
1948: The Twenty-One Balloons by William Pène du Bois
- An adventurous old loner finds wealth and an island utopia when his hot air balloon crashes in the Pacific Ocean.
1947: Miss Hickory by Carolyn Sherwin Bailey
- Odd story about a stick doll with a hickory nut head who finds her true purpose in becoming part of a tree.
1946: Strawberry Girl by Lois Lenski
F - The Boyers work and fight (literally) to stake out a living in the Florida swampland and pine forests.
- Justin Morgan Had a Horse by Marguerite Henry
- The Moved-Outers by Florence Crannell Means
- Bhimsa, the Dancing Bear by Christine Weston
- New Found World by Katherine Shippen
1945: Rabbit Hill by Robert Lawson
- Cute animals stress out about the new human tenants of Rabbit Hill, but their worries are all for naught.
1944: Johnny Tremain by Esther Forbes
F L - On the eve of the American Revolution, Johnny Tremain grows to manhood and learns the price of standing up.
1943: Adam of the Road by Elizabeth Janet Gray
W - A young minstrel who sings a bunch of songs looks for his father and dog across late 13th-century England.
1942: The Matchlock Gun by Walter Edmonds
F - 10-year-old Edward defends his mother and sister from Indians using an unwieldy antique firearm.
1941: Call It Courage by Armstrong Sperry
F - Mafatu, ironically named "Stout Heart," travels away from his island to prove his courage in the face of peril.
- Blue Willow by Doris Gates
- Young Mac of Fort Vancouver by Mary Jane Carr
- The Long Winter by Laura Ingalls Wilder
- Nansen by Anna Gertrude Hall
1940: Daniel Boone by James Daugherty
F - Daniel Boone swings on wild vines straight out of history and into legend as an explorer and warrior.
1939: Thimble Summer by Elizabeth Enright
- Young Garnet Linden lives the perfect rural American ideal for one summer, complete with hot dogs and fairs.
- Nino by Valenti Angelo
- Mr. Popper's Penguins by Richard & Florence Atwater
- Hello the Boat! by Phyllis Crawford
- Leader By Destiny: George Washington, Man and Patriot by Jeanette Eaton
- Penn by Elizabeth Janet Gray
1938: The White Stag by Kate Seredy
F W - The epic story of Attila the Hun and the origins of the Hungarian people as no history book tells it.
1937: Roller Skates by Ruth Sawyer
L - In one year during the 1890s, a young girl gambols through New York, embracing life and learning about death.
- Phebe Fairchild: Her Book by Lois Lenski
- Whistler's Van by Idwal Jones
- The Golden Basket by Ludwig Bemelmans
- Winterbound by Margery Bianco
- The Codfish Musket by Agnes Hewes
- Audubon by Constance Rourke
1936: Caddie Woodlawn by Carol Ryrie Brink
- A feisty 11-year-old redhead comes of age on the Wisconsin prairie at the time of Indians and the Civil War.
1935: Dobry by Monica Shannon
W - A young Bulgarian peasant very much alive to the world pursues his ambition to draw and sculpt.
1934: Invincible Louisa: The Story of the Author of Little Women by Cornelia Meigs
W - The life of Louisa May Alcott mined for its autobiographical similarities to her best-known work, Little Women.
- The Forgotten Daughter by Caroline Snedeker
- Swords of Steel by Elsie Singmaster
- ABC Bunny by Wanda Gág
- Winged Girl of Knossos by Erik Berry, pseud. (Allena Best)
- New Land by Sarah Schmidt
- Big Tree of Bunlahy: Stories of My Own Countryside by Padraic Colum
- Glory of the Seas by Agnes Hewes
- Apprentice of Florence by Ann Kyle
1933: Young Fu of the Upper Yangtze by Elizabeth Lewis
F W - A young Chinaman in 1920s Chungking navigates a restless city toward maturity and manhood.
- Swift Rivers by Cornelia Meigs
- The Railroad To Freedom: A Story of the Civil War by Hildegarde Swift
- Children of the Soil: A Story of Scandinavia by Nora Burglon
1932: Waterless Mountain by Laura Adams Armer
W - Armer provides a moving portrait of Navajo Indians learning to transition between ancient and modern ways.
- The Fairy Circus by Dorothy P. Lathrop
- Calico Bush by Rachel Field
- Boy of the South Seas by Eunice Tietjens
- Out of the Flame by Eloise Lownsbery
- Jane's Island by Marjorie Allee
- Truce of the Wolf and Other Tales of Old Italy by Mary Gould Davis
1931: The Cat Who Went to Heaven by Elizabeth Coatsworth
W - A young painter explores Buddhist spirituality in order to paint a perfect picture of Siddartha.
- Floating Island by Anne Parrish
- The Dark Star of Itza: The Story of A Pagan Princess by Alida Malkus
- Queer Person by Ralph Hubbard
- Mountains are Free by Julia Davis Adams
- Spice and the Devil's Cave by Agnes Hewes
- Meggy MacIntosh by Elizabeth Janet Gray
- Garram the Hunter: A Boy of the Hill Tribes by Herbert Best
- Ood-Le-Uk the Wanderer by Alice Lide & Margaret Johansen
1930: Hitty, Her First Hundred Years by Rachel Field
- In 19th-century New England, a sentient doll experiences life with a whaling captain's family.
- A Daughter of the Seine: The Life of Madame Roland by Jeanette Eaton
- Pran of Albania by Elizabeth Miller
- Jumping-Off Place by Marion Hurd McNeely
- The Tangle-Coated Horse and Other Tales by Ella Young
- Vaino by Julia Davis Adams
- Little Blacknose by Hildegarde Swift
1929: The Trumpeter of Krakow by Eric P. Kelly
F - Adventure and intrigue abound in this historical romance about Old Warsaw and a mysterious family pumpkin.
- Pigtail of Ah Lee Ben Loo by John Bennett
- Millions of Cats by Wanda Gág
- The Boy Who Was by Grace Hallock
- Clearing Weather by Cornelia Meigs
- Runaway Papoose by Grace Moon
- Tod of the Fens by Elinor Whitney
1928: Gay Neck, the Story of a Pigeon by Dhan Gopal Mukerji
W - An Indian boy raises a beautiful pigeon that gradually teaches him the importance of peace and gentleness.
- The Wonder Smith and His Son by Ella Young
- Downright Dencey by Caroline Snedeker???????
1927: Smoky, the Cowhorse by Will James
F - Written by a real cattle rustler and cowboy, this is to Western mustangs what Call of the Wild is to sled dogs.
1926: Shen of the Sea by Arthur Bowie Chrisman
- These stories set in ancient China are eloquent and funny as they investigate all manner of reversed fortune.
- The Voyagers: Being Legends and Romances of Atlantic Discovery by Padraic Colum
1925: Tales from Silver Lands by Charles Finger
- Including myths, just-so stories, and magical adventures, these tales of South America are exotic and beautiful.
- Nicholas: A Manhattan Christmas Story by Annie Carroll Moore
- The Dream Coach by Anne Parrish
1924: The Dark Frigate by Charles Hawes
F - Swords and fire abound as a young English boy sails with pirates, leads troops in the English Civil War, and more.
1923: The Voyages of Doctor Dolittle by Hugh Lofting
- Doctor Dolittle speaks every animal language you can imagine, which allows him to travel the globe and help others.
1922: The Story of Mankind by Hendrik Willem van Loon
W - A Western-centric history of the world complete with liberal modernist propaganda and revisionism.