History of Science & Mathematics

Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of scientific methods, which emphasize the observation, experimentation and explanation of real world phenomena. Given the dual status of science as objective knowledge and as a human construct, good historiography of science draws on the historical methods of both intellectual history and social history. While empirical investigations of the natural world have been described since antiquity, and scientific methods have been employed since the Middle Ages, the dawn of modern science is generally traced back to the early modern period, during what is known as the Scientific Revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries. Scientific methods are considered to be so fundamental to modern science that some—especially philosophers of science and practicing scientists—consider earlier inquiries into nature to be pre-scientific. Traditionally, historians of science have defined science sufficiently broadly to include those inquiries.

The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of new discoveries in mathematics. To a lesser extent it isan investigation into the standard mathematical methods and notation of the past. Before the modern age and the worldwide spread of knowledge, written examples of new mathematical developments have come to light only in a few locales. All of these texts concern the so-called Pythagorean theorem, which seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry. One striking feature of the history of ancient and medieval mathematics is that bursts of mathematical development were often followed by centuries of stagnation. Beginning in Renaissance Italy in the 16th century, new mathematical developments, interacting with new scientific discoveries, were made at an ever increasing pace, and this continues to the present day.

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10 Inventors Who Changed the World
by Clive Gifford
from Kingfisher
for 4th-8th grade
in Inventions & Discoveries (Location: SCI-INV)
$7.50 (1 in stock)
Adventures of Munford: Munford Meets Robert Fulton
by Jamie Aramini
Fir from Geography Matters
for 2nd-4th grade
in Geography Matters products (Location: GEO-GEOM)
Africa Letters
by Sarah Allen
2nd edition
for Adult
in Clearance: Literature (Location: CLE-LIT)
$4.00 (1 in stock)
Albert Einstein and the Theory of Relativity
Solutions: Profiles in Science for Young People
by Robert Cwiklik
from Barron's Educational Series, Inc.
for 5th-8th grade
in Biographies (Location: BIO)
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Albert Einstein: Young Thinker
by Marie Hammontree
from Aladdin Paperbacks
Biography for 3rd-6th grade
in Childhood of Famous Americans (Location: BIO-COFA)
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Alexander Graham Bell
by Elizabeth MacLeod
from Kids Can Press
Biography for 3rd-6th grade
in Biographies (Location: BIO)
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Alexander Graham Bell
by Elizabeth MacLeod
from Scholastic Inc.
Biography for 3rd-6th grade
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All About Famous Inventors and Their Inventions
All About Books #18
by Fletcher Pratt
from Random House
for 3rd-6th grade
in Inventions & Discoveries (Location: SCI-INV)
Along Came Galileo
by Jeanne Bendick
from Beautiful Feet Books
Biography for 4th-8th grade
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Always Inventing
by Tom L. Matthews
from National Geographic
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Always Inventing
by Tom L. Matthews
from National Geographic
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$6.79
Amazing Life of Benjamin Franklin
by James Cross Giblin
from Scholastic Inc.
for 1st-4th grade
in Biographies (Location: BIO)
$6.79
Archimedes and the Door of Science
by Jeanne Bendick
from Bethlehem Books
Biography for 5th-8th grade
in Biographies (Location: BIO)
$12.71
Aristotle Leads the Way - Student's Quest Guide
by Joy Hakim
from Smithsonian Books
for 8th-12th grade
in History of Science & Mathematics (Location: SCI-HIS)
$8.50 (2 in stock)
Aristotle Leads the Way: Teacher's Quest Guide
by Joy Hakim
from Smithsonian Books
for 4th-10th grade
in History of Science & Mathematics (Location: SCI-HIS)
$30.00 (2 in stock)
Audubon and His Sons
by Amy Hogeboom
from Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Books
for 6th-10th grade
in Biographies (Location: BIO)
$8.00 (1 in stock)
Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin
Dover Thrift Editions
by Benjamin Franklin
from Dover Publications
for 9th-Adult
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Bell and the Science of the Telephone
by Brian Williams
from Barron's Educational Series, Inc.
for 4th-6th grade
in Inventions & Discoveries (Location: SCI-INV)
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Ben Carson
Heroes of History
by Geoff & Janet Benge
from Emerald Books
Biography for 4th-7th grade
in Heroes of History (Location: BIO-BENGE)
$8.49
Ben Carson - Audio Book
Heroes of History
by Geoff & Janet Benge
from Emerald Books
Biography for 4th-7th grade
in Heroes of History (Location: BIO-BENGE)
Ben Franklin
Sterling Point Books
by Thomas Fleming
from Sterling Publishing Co.
for 5th-9th grade
in Biographies (Location: BIO)
$4.50 (1 in stock)
Ben Franklin of Old Philadelphia
Landmark Series
by Margaret Cousins
from Random House
Biography for 5th-8th grade
in Biographies (Location: BIO)
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Ben Franklin of Old Philadelphia
Landmark #28
by Margaret Cousins
from Random House
for 5th-8th grade
in American Landmark Books (Location: VIN-LAND)
Benjamin Franklin
Heroes of History
by Geoff & Janet Benge
from Emerald Books
Biography for 4th-7th grade
in Heroes of History (Location: BIO-BENGE)
$8.49
Benjamin Franklin
TIME for Kids Biographies
by Editors of TIME For Kids
from HarperCollins
Biography for 4th-6th grade
in Biographies (Location: BIO)
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Benjamin Franklin's Adventures With Electricity
by Beverly Birch & Robin Bell Corfield
from Barron's Educational Series, Inc.
Biography for 4th-6th grade
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Benjamin Franklin: The Autobiography and Other Writings
Signet Classics
by Benjamin Franklin
Reprint from Signet Classics
Autobiography for 9th-Adult
in 18th Century Literature (Location: LIT5-18)
$5.06
Benjamin Franklin: Young Printer
by Augusta Stevenson
from Aladdin Paperbacks
Biography for 3rd-6th grade
in Childhood of Famous Americans (Location: BIO-COFA)
$6.79
Biography of Benjamin Franklin
Sons of Liberty Series
by William M. Thayer
from A Beka Books
for 5th-9th grade
in A Beka Book Report books (Location: REA-ABK)
$9.50 (1 in stock)
Blockhead: The Life of Fibonacci
by Romola Anderson, R. C. Anderson
1st edition from Henry Holt and Company
for 9th-Adult
in Biographies (Location: BIO)
Camera
Inventions That Shaped the World
by Trudi Strain Trueit
from Franklin Watts
in Inventions & Discoveries (Location: SCI-INV)
Carry On, Mr. Bowditch
by Jean Lee Latham
from Houghton Mifflin
Biography for 5th-9th grade
1956 Newbery Medal winner
in Historical Fiction (Location: FIC-HIF)
$6.79
Carry On, Mr. Bowditch - Audio CD
by Jean Lee Latham
from Well-Trained Mind Press
for 5th-8th grade
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$28.50
Carver: A Life in Poems
by Marilyn Nelson
from Boyds Mill Press
for 7th-11th grade
2002 Newbery Honor Book, Coretta Scott King Honor Award
in Biographies (Location: BIO)
$14.41
Champions of Invention
Champions of Discovery
by John Hudson Tiner
from Master Books
for 4th-8th grade
in Inventions & Discoveries (Location: SCI-INV)
$5.99 $3.50 (1 in stock)
Champions of Mathematics
by John Hudson Tiner
from Master Books
for 4th-8th grade
in History of Science & Mathematics (Location: SCI-HIS)
$5.99
Champions of Science
Champions of Discovery
by John Hudson Tiner
from Master Books
for 4th-8th grade
in History of Science & Mathematics (Location: SCI-HIS)
$5.99
Charles Darwin and the Origin of Species
by Walter Karp
from Harper & Row
for 4th-8th grade
in Horizon Caravel Books (Location: VIN-HOR)
Chord of Steel
by Thomas B. Costain
from Doubleday & Company
for 8th-Adult
in Biographies (Location: BIO)
$4.00 (1 in stock)
Clara Barton
Heroes of History
by Geoff & Janet Benge
from Emerald Books
Biography for 4th-7th grade
in Heroes of History (Location: BIO-BENGE)
$8.49
Clara Barton
Landmark #58
by Helen Dore Boylston
from Random House
for 5th-8th grade
in American Landmark Books (Location: VIN-LAND)
Clara Barton - Audio Book
Heroes of History
by Geoff & Janet Benge
from Emerald Books
Biography for 4th-7th grade
in Heroes of History (Location: BIO-BENGE)
Clara Barton: Founder of the American Red Cross
Childhood of Famous Americans
by Augusta Stevenson
from Aladdin Paperbacks
Biography for 3rd-6th grade
in Childhood of Famous Americans (Location: BIO-COFA)
$6.79
Classical Acts and Facts Science Cards: Famous Scientists
2nd edition from Classical Conversations
for Kindergarten-8th grade
in Classical Acts & Facts Cards (Location: HISCUR-CC)
$22.99
Classical Acts and Facts Science Cards: Famous Scientists (old)
1st edition from Classical Conversations
for Kindergarten-8th grade
in Clearance: Science & Health (Location: ZCLE-SCI)
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Clockwork Universe
by Edward Dolnick
Reprint from Harper Perennial
in History of Science & Mathematics (Location: SCI-HIS)
Combat Nurses of World War II
Landmark #116
by Wyatt Blassingame
from Random House
for 5th-9th grade
in American Landmark Books (Location: VIN-LAND)
Cup of Cold Water
by Christine Farenhorst
from P&R Publishing
for 4th-6th grades
in Biographies (Location: BIO)
$11.04
David Livingstone
by C. Silvester Horne
from Christian Liberty Press
Biography for 7th-10th grade
in Biographies (Location: BIO)
$8.08
David Livingstone
Sowers Series
by John Hudson Tiner
from Mott Media
Biography for 5th-7th grade
in Sowers Biographies (Location: BIO-SOW)
$7.64
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