Measurement is the estimation of the magnitude of some attribute of an object, such as its length or weight, relative to a unit of measurement. Measurement usually involves using a measuring instrument, such as a ruler or scale, which is calibrated to compare the object to some standard, such as a meter or a kilogram. In science, however, where accurate measurement is crucial, a measurement is understood to have three parts: first, the measurement itself, second, the margin of error, and third, the confidence level — that is, the probability that the actual property of the physical object is within the margin of error. For example, we might measure the length of an object as 2.34 meters plus or minus 0.01 meter, with a 95% level of confidence.

Metrology is the scientific study of measurement. In measurement theory a measurement is an observation that reduces an uncertainty expressed as a quantity. As a verb, measurement is making such observations. It includes the estimation of a physical quantity such as distance, energy, temperature, or time. It could also include such things as assessment of attitudes, values and perception in surveys or the testing of aptitudes of individuals.

In the physical sciences, measurement is most commonly thought of as the ratio of some physical quantity to a standard quantity of the same type, thus a measurement of length is the ratio of a physical length to some standard length, such as a standard meter. Measurements are usually given in terms of a real number times a unit of measurement, for example 2.53 meters, but sometimes measurements use complex numbers, as in measurements of electrical impedance.

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 58-Piece Metric Weight Set from Learning Resources for Kindergarten-5th grade in Scales & Balances (Location: B08-TOP) Beginner's Balance by Learning Resources from Learning Resources for Preschool-3rd grade in Scales & Balances (Location: B08-TOP) Brass Mass Set from Learning Resources for 3rd-6th grade in Scales & Balances (Location: B08-TOP) Customary Weight Set from Learning Resources for 3rd-6th grade in Scales & Balances (Location: B08-TOP) English/Metric Tape Measure from Learning Resources for Kindergarten-6th grade in Conversions: English & Metric Measurement (Location: B08-01T) English/Metric Tape Measure (Set of 10) from Learning Resources for Kindergarten-6th grade in Conversions: English & Metric Measurement (Location: B08-01T) Key to Measurement 3 by Betsy Franco from Key Curriculum Press for 4th-8th grade in Conversions: English & Metric Measurement (Location: B08-01T) Key to Metric Measurement 3 by Betsy Franco from Key Curriculum Press for 4th-8th grade in Conversions: English & Metric Measurement (Location: B08-01T) Math 2 Flipper from Christopher Lee Publications for 6th-12th grade in Math Flippers (Location: B08-top) Math Terminology Flipper from Christopher Lee Publications for 4th-10th grade in Flippers (Location: BLG-FLP) My Book of Measurement: Length from Kumon Publishing for 1st-3rd grade in Kumon Math Skills (Location: B08-07E) My Book of Measurement: Volume Act Csm Wk from Kumon Publishing for 1st-3rd grade in Kumon Math Skills (Location: B08-07E) My Book of Measurement: Weight Act Csm Wk from Kumon Publishing for 1st-3rd grade in Kumon Math Skills (Location: B08-07E) My First Book of Time by Claire Llewellyn from DK Publishing for Preschool-2nd grade in Time & Clocks (Location: B08-03B) Platform Scale from Learning Resources for 1st-3rd grade in Scales & Balances (Location: B08-TOP) Primary Bucket Balance by Learning Resources from Learning Resources for Kindergarten-6th grade in Scales & Balances (Location: B08-TOP) Ray's New Arithmetics - Key to Primary, Intellectual and Practical by Joseph Ray, M.D. from Mott Media for 1st-6th grade in Ray's New Arithmetic (Location: B08-06A) Student Thermometer by Learning Resources from Learning Resources for 2nd-7th grade in Conversions: English & Metric Measurement (Location: B08-01T)