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Africa

We recently received some negative but constructive criticism about this article, saying it is Eurocentric, lacking a great deal of relevant information, and not culturally-sensitive or even semi-comprehensive. It reduces the entire history of the continent of Africa to a Chinese explorer, Portuguese explorers, imperialism, slavery, and post-colonial instability, and we should at least include a summary of Africa's empires. It is a fair critique, and we will address it as soon as we can. Please note that this was NOT written by Exodus employees.

The historical record opens in Africa around 3300 B.C. with the rise of literacy in Ancient Egypt, an empire which continued, with varying levels of influence over other areas, until 343 B.C. Prominent African civilizations at different times included Carthage, the Kingdom of Aksum, the Nubian kingdoms, the empires of the Sahel, Great Zimbabwe, and the Congo. Ancient Africa possessed as many as 10,000 different states and polities characterized by different systems of political organization and rule.

In 1418, a Chinese expedition led by Admiral Zheng He reached Africa's east coast; the Chinese traveled at least as far as Malindi in Kenya. In 1482, they were followed by the Portuguese, who established the first of many trading stations along the coast of Ghana at Elmina. The chief commodities dealt in were slaves, gold, ivory, and spices. The slave trade continued until its gradual decline in the 1820s was prompted by a lack of demand for slaves in the New World and increasing anti-slavery legislation in Europe and America. This caused dramatic shifts in local polities, obliging African states to implement new economies. The largest powers of West Africa adopted different ways of adapting to the shift. The Asante Confederacy and the Kingdom of Dahomey concentrated on the development of legitimate commerce in the form of palm oil, cocoa, timber, and gold, forming the bedrock of West Africa's modern export trade, while some, like the Oyo Empire, were unable to adapt, and collapsed into civil wars.

In the mid-nineteenth century, European explorers became interested in opening the heart of the continent for trade, mining, and other commercial exploitation. Central Africa was still largely unknown to Europeans at this time. Missionary David Livingstone explored the continent between 1852 and his death in 1873; he was the first European to see Victoria Falls. A prime goal for explorers, one shared by Livingstone, was to locate the source of the River Nile. Subsequent expeditions by explorers located Lake Tanganyika and Lake Victoria; the latter was eventually proven as the Nile's main source. By the end of the century, much of Africa was well explored; this paved the way for the colonization which followed.

In the late nineteenth century, the European imperial powers engaged in a territorial scramble, occupying most of Africa and creating many colonial states. Only Liberia and Ethiopia remained independent nations. Colonial rule by Europeans continued until the conclusion of World War II, when all these states gradually obtained formal independence. Today, Africa contains 54 independent countries, which mostly retain the borders drawn during the era of European rule.

Since colonialism, African states have frequently been hampered by instability, corruption, and violence. Few African nations have been able to sustain democratic governments; many have instead cycled through a series of coups, producing military dictatorships. Great instability was mainly the result of the marginalization of other ethnic groups by military generals who were ignorant on matters of governance. For political gain, many leaders fanned ethnic conflicts that had been exacerbated by colonial rule. In many countries, the military was perceived as the only group that could effectively maintain order, and it ruled many nations in Africa during the 1970s and early 1980s. Territorial disputes were common, with the European-imposed borders of many nations being widely contested through armed conflicts.

Cold War conflicts between the United States and the Soviet Union also played a role in instability. When a country became independent for the first time, it was often expected to align with one of the two superpowers. Many countries in Northern Africa received Soviet military aid, while many in Central and Southern Africa were supported by the United States, France, or both. Some countries were ruled by communist parties that sought to impose Soviet policies resulting in atrocities such as the Ethiopian famine of 1985-89. AIDS has also remained a prevalent issue in post-colonial Africa.

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Wikipedia Article
Africa
Wikipedia Article
History of Africa
Timeline of African History
courtesy of worldatlas.com
BBC Timeline of African History
More in-depth though not as current
TimeMaps
Informative and visual timeline maps
220 Items found Print
14 Cows for America
by Carmen Agra Deedy, in collaboration with Wilson Kimeli Naiyomah
Reprint from Peachtree Publishers, Ltd.
for 3rd-5th grade
in Africa (Location: B02-05E)
7 Continents: Africa
by Jo Ellen Moore
from Evan-Moor Educational Publishers
for 3rd-6th grade
in Evan-Moor Geography (Location: B04-04D)
$21.99
A is for Africa
by Ifeoma Onyefulu
Reprint from Puffin Books
for Kindergarten-3rd grade
in Alphabet & Counting Books (Location: CPB-02A)
$3.50 (1 in stock)
Adventure in Africa
by Charles Partee
for 8th-Adult
in History of Missions (Location: C04-01C)
$6.30 (1 in stock)
Africa
by Robyn Hamilton
from Edupress
for 2nd-5th grade
in Africa (Location: B02-05E)
$5.00 (1 in stock)
Africa
by D. V. Georges
from Amazon Children's Publishing
for 2nd-4th grade
in Africa (Location: B02-05E)
$3.00 (1 in stock)
Africa
by Harriet Kinghorn, M. Susan Lardinois
from Instructional Fair
for 4th-8th grade
in Africa (Location: B02-05E)
$7.00 (3 in stock)
Africa
The Golden Book Picture Atlas of the World Book 5
by Norman Lobsenz
from Golden Press
for 4th-8th grade
in Africa (Location: B02-05E)
$3.00 (1 in stock)
Africa For Kids
by Harvey Croze
from Chicago Review Press
for 4th-6th grade
in Africa (Location: B02-05E)
$17.95 $12.00 (1 in stock)
Africa Is Not A Country
by Margy Burns Knight
unknown from Millbrook Press
for 1st-3rd grade
in Africa (Location: B02-05E)
Africa Letters
by Sarah Allen
Second Edition
for 10th-Adult
in 20th & 21st Century Literature (Location: CLT-20C)
$8.50 (1 in stock)
Africa's Vanishing Wildlife
by Chris & Tilde Stuart
1st edition from Smithsonian Books
for 5th-10th grade
in Africa (Location: B02-05E)
$8.00 (1 in stock)
African Animals - Sticker Activity Book
from Dover Publications
for Preschool-3rd grade
in Dover Little Activity Books (Location: A02-DLA)
$1.99
African Critters
by Robert Haas
from National Geographic
for 3rd-6th grade
in Zoology (Location: BSR-09B)
African Folk Tales
by Hugh Vernon-Jackson
from Dover Publications
for 3rd-5th grade
$1.00 (1 in stock)
African Plains - Coloring Book
Dover Coloring Books
by Diane Gaspas-Ettl
from Dover Publications
for 2nd-6th grade
in Dover Coloring Books (Location: A01-DOV)
$3.74
African Traveler
by Ronald Syme
from William Morrow & Company
for 3rd-6th grade
in Biographies (Location: A12-01A)
$4.50 (1 in stock)
Africans
by David Lamb
Revised from Vintage Classics
for Adult
in History for Adults (Location: ALT-16A)
$4.00 (1 in stock)
AIO Imagination Station Book #11
by Marianne Hering, Wayne Thomas Batson
from Focus on the Family
for 1st-3rd grade
in Imagination Station (Location: A10-01H)
$4.99
Anansi and the Moss-covered Rock
by Eric A. Kimmel
Reprint from Holiday House
for Preschool-1st grade
in Picture Books (Location: CPB-03)
Ancient Africa Volume 1 - Coloring Book
from Bellerophon Books
for 3rd-6th grade
in Africa (Location: B02-05E)
$3.50
Ancient Africa Volume 2 - Coloring Book
from Bellerophon Books
for 3rd-6th grade
in Africa (Location: B02-05E)
$3.50
Ancient West African Kingdoms
History Opens Windows
by Jane Shuter
from Heinemann Educational Books
for 3rd-5th grade
in Africa (Location: B02-05E)
$3.50 (1 in stock)
Ancient West African Kingdoms: Ghana, Mali, & Songhai
Understanding People In the Past
by Mary Quigley
from Heinemann Library
for 4th-6th grade
in Africa (Location: B02-05E)
$5.50 (1 in stock)
Anna Hibiscus
by Atinuke
Reprint from Kane/Miller
for 1st-5th grade
in Realistic Fiction (Location: A09-01A)
$5.99
Ashanti to Zulu
by Margaret Musgrove, Leo & Diane Dillon
from Puffin Books
Word Books for 2nd-5th grade
1977 Caldecott Medal winner
in Alphabet & Counting Books (Location: CPB-02A)
$6.99 $4.50 (1 in stock)
At the Crossroads
by Rachel Isadora
1st Mulberry ed from Greenwillow Books
for Preschool-2nd grade
in Picture Books (Location: CPB-03)
Babu's Song
by Stephanie Stuve-Bodeen
from Lee & Low Books
for 1st-3rd grade
in Picture Books (Location: CPB-03)
Beat the Story-Drum, Pum-Pum
by Ashley Bryan
from Aladdin Paperbacks
Fairy Tales, Fables, and Legends for 3rd-7th grade
$8.95 $5.00 (5 in stock)
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by Ashley Bryan
1st edition from Atheneum
for 2nd-5th grade
$7.00 (1 in stock)
Beatrice's Goat
by Page McBrier
Reprint from Aladdin Paperbacks
for 1st-3rd grade
in Picture Books (Location: CPB-03)
Belisarius Book II: Glory of the Romans
Belisarius #2
by Paolo A. Belzoni
from Arx Publishing
for 5th-10th grade
in Historical Fiction (Location: A05-01A)
$8.00 (1 in stock)
Best Beekeeper of Lalibela
by Cristina Kessler
from Holiday House
for 1st-3rd grade
in Picture Books (Location: CPB-03)
Bold Believers in Sudan
from Voice of the Martyrs
for 2nd-6th grade
in Africa (Location: B02-05E)
$4.00 (1 in stock)
Boy Who Harnessed the Wind
by Bryan Mealer, William Kamkwamba
Reprint from Dial Books for Young Readers
for 1st-3rd grade
Bringing the Rain to Kapiti Plain
by Verna Aardema & Beatriz Vidal
from Scholastic Inc.
for Preschool-2nd grade
in Picture Books (Location: CPB-03)
$3.00 (2 in stock)
Bulu: African Wonder Dog
by Dick Houston
from Yearling
for 5th-7th grade
in Animal Stories (Location: A06-03A)
C. T. Studd
Christian Heroes: Then & Now
by Geoff & Janet Benge
from YWAM Publishing
Biography for 4th-7th grade
in Christian Heroes: Then and Now (Location: A12-06E)
$8.50 $6.00 (1 in stock)
Chameleon, A Boy, and A Quest
from New Growth Press
for 3rd-8th grade
in Adventure Stories (Location: A04-01A)
$13.00
Colonist of Southwest Africa
by L. Penning
from Inheritance Publications
Historical Fiction for 6th-10th grade
in Historical Fiction (Location: A05-01A)
$10.95
Come With Me to Africa
by Golden Books
from Golden Books
for 4th-6th grade
in Africa (Location: B02-05E)
$6.00 (1 in stock)
Country Far Away
by Nigel Gray, Philippe Dupasquier
from Scholastic Reference
for 1st-3rd grade
in Everyday Life in History (Location: B04-00C)
$3.50 (1 in stock)
Cow-Tail Switch
by George Herzog, Harold Courlander
Reissue from Square Fish Publishing
for 5th-7th grade
in Tales from Around the World (Location: A11-04A)
Cry, the Beloved Country
by Alan Paton
from Charles Scribner's Sons
for 10th-Adult
in 20th & 21st Century Literature (Location: CLT-20C)
$16.00 $9.00 (2 in stock)
Cultural Atlas for Young People: Africa
by Jocelyn Murray
3rd edition from Facts On File
African History Reference/Atlas for 4th-8th grade
in Africa (Location: B02-05E)
$35.00
David Livingstone
by C. Silvester Horne
from Christian Liberty Press
Biography for 7th-10th grade
in Biographies (Location: A12-01A)
$9.50
David Livingstone
Christian Heroes: Then & Now
by Geoff & Janet Benge
from YWAM Publishing
Biography for 4th-7th grade
in Christian Heroes: Then and Now (Location: A12-06E)
$8.50 $6.00 (3 in stock)
David Livingstone
Heroes of the Faith Series
by Basil Mathews
from A Beka Books
for 5th-9th grade
in A Beka Book Report books (Location: B10-02B)
David Livingstone
by J. H Worcester
from Moody Press
Biography for 4th-8th grade
in Biographies (Location: A12-01A)
$1.50 (1 in stock)
David Livingstone
by Ben Alex
from Victor Books
for 4th-6th grade
in Biographies (Location: A12-01A)
$3.50 (1 in stock)
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