Karl Marx was born at Trier in 1818 of a German-Jewish family converted to Christianity. As a student in Bonn and Berlin he was influenced by Hegel's dialectic, but he later reacted against idealist philosophy and began to develop his theory of historical materialism. He related the state of society to its economic foundations and mode of production, and recommended armed revolution on the part of the proletariat.
In 1844, Marx met Friedrich Engels, with whom he formed a life-long partnership. Together, they prepared the Manifesto of the Communist Party as a statement of the Communist League's policy. In 1848, Marx returned to Germany and took an active part in the unsuccessful democratic revolution. The following year he arrived in England as a refugee and lived in London until his death in 1883.
Helped financially by Engels, Marx and his family nevertheless lived in great poverty. After years of research (mostly carried out in the British Museum), he published in 1867 the first volume of his great work, Capital. From 1864 to 1872, Marx played a leading role in the International Working Men's Association, and his last years saw the development of the first mass workers' parties founded on avowedly Marxist principles.
Besides the two posthumous volumes of Capital compiled by Engels, Karl Marx's other writings include:The German IdeologyThe Poverty of PhilosophyThe 18th Brumaire of Louis BonaparteThe Civil War in FranceA Contribution to the Critique of Political EconomyGrundrisse: Foundations of the Critique of Political EconomyTheories of Surplus-value